Discussions By Condition: I cannot get a diagnosis.

please... can you help me with this?

Posted In: I cannot get a diagnosis. 3 Replies
  • Posted By: nylra03
  • May 11, 2008
  • 03:14 AM

what's the difference between trachoma and chlamydia keratoconjunctivits?

:confused: i'm so confused.. are those both are just the same or somewhat difference.?

please... can you help me with this?

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3 Replies:

  • Trachoma is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis and it is spread by direct contact with eye, nose, and throat secretions from affected individuals, or contact with fomites (inanimate objects), such as towels and/or washcloths, that have had similar contact with these secretions. Untreated, repeated trachoma infections result in a painful form of permanent blindness when the eyelids turn inward, causing the eyelashes to scratch the cornea. Children are the most susceptible to infection, but the blinding effects are often not felt until adulthood.
    Adriesse07 41 Replies Flag this Response
  • E. Clinical Syndromes 1. Trachoma Chronic infection or repeated reinfection with C. trachomatis (biovar: trachoma) results in inflammation and follicle formation involving the entire conjunctiva (Figure 7 and 8). Scarring of the conjunctiva causes turning in of the eyelids and eventual scarring, ulceration and blood vessel formation in the cornea, resulting in blindness. The name trachoma comes from 'trakhus' meaning rough which characterizes the appearance of the conjunctiva. Inflammation in the tissue also interferes with the flow of tears which is an important antibacterial defense mechanisms. Thus, secondary bacterial infections occur. 2. Inclusion conjunctivitis - Inclusion conjunctivitis is caused by C. trachomatis (biovar: trachoma) associated with genital infections (serovars D - K). The infection is characterized by a mucopurulent discharge, corneal infiltrates and occasional corneal vascularization. In chronic cases corneal scarring may occur. In neonates infection results from passage through an infected birth canal and becomes apparent after 5 - 12 days. Ear infection and rhinitis can accompany the ocular disease. 3. Infant pneumonia - Infants infected with C. trachomatis (biovar: trachoma; serovars: D - K) at birth can develop pneumonia. The children develop symptoms of wheezing and cough but not fever. The disease is often preceded by neonatal conjunctivitis. 4. Ocular lymphogranuloma venereum - Infection with the LGV serovars of C. trachomatis (biovar: LGV) can lead to oculoglandular conjunctivitis. In addition to the conjunctivitis, patients also have an associated lymphadenopathy. 5. Urogenital infections - In females the infection is usually (80%) asymptomatic but symptoms can include cervicitis, urethritis, and salpingitis. Postpartum fever in infected mothers is common. Premature delivery and an increased rate of ectopic pregnancy due to salpingitis can occur. In the United States, tubal pregnancy is the leading cause of first-trimester, pregnancy-related deaths. In males, the infection is usually (75%) symptomatic After a 3 week incubation period patients may develop urethral discharge, dysuria and pyuria. Approximately 35 - 50% of non-gonococcal urethritis is due to C. trachomatis (biovar: trachoma). Post-gonococcal urethritis also occurs in men infected with both Neisseria gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis. The symptoms of chlamydial infection occur after treatment for gonorrhea because the incubation time is longer. Up to 40% of women with untreated (undiagnosed) chlamydia will develop pelvic inflammatory diseases and about 20% of these women will become infertile. Many untreated cases (18%) result in chronic pelvic pain. Women infected with chlamydia have a 3 - 5 fold increased risk of acquiring HIV. http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/mayer/chl-fract_small.jpg Figure 9 Chlamydial urogenital infection in men. After an incubation of 3 weeks, up to 75% of patients show symptoms such as urethral discharge, dysuria and pyuria 6. Reiter's syndrome - Reiter's syndrome is a triad of symptoms that include conjunctivitis, polyarthritis and genital inflammation. The disease is associated with HLA-B27. Approximately 50 - 65% of patients have an acute C. trachomatis infection at the onset of arthritis and greater than 80% have serological evidence for C. trachomatis infection. Other infections (shigellosis or Yersinia enterocolitica) have also been associated with Reiter's syndrome. 7. Lymphogranuloma venereum (C. trachomatis biovar: LGV) - The primary lesion of LGV is a small painless and inconspicuous vesicular lesion that appears at the site of infection, often the penis or vagina. The patient may also experience fever, headache and myalgia. The second stage of the disease presents as a marked inflammation of the draining lymph nodes. The enlarged nodes become painful 'buboes' that can eventually rupture and drain. Fever, headache and myalgia can accompany the inflammation of the lymph nodes. Proctitis is common in females; lymphatic drainage from the vagina is perianal. Proctitis in males results from anal intercourse or from lymphatic spread from the urethra. The course of the disease is variable but it can lead to genital ulcers or elephantiasis due to obstruction of the lymphatics.
    Adriesse07 41 Replies Flag this Response
  • i really appreciate the reply....... thank you so much.... ... i have this one problem..... what is the right nursing diagnosis for conjunctivitis?? is it "disturbed visual sensory perception related to bacterial infection" or it has something to do with the pain?? :confused:what do you think? i don't know what to do... tomorrow is my report...:(
    nylra03 2 Replies Flag this Response
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